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A History of Language

A History of Language

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Trivers, R. L. (1971). "The evolution of reciprocal altruism". Quarterly Review of Biology. 46: 35–57. doi: 10.1086/406755. S2CID 19027999.

Language | Definition, Types, Characteristics, Development

Bakker, Peter (July 1987). "Autonomous Languages of Twins". Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae: Twin Research. 36 (2): 233–238. doi: 10.1017/S0001566000004463. ISSN 0001-5660. PMID 3434134. a b Chomsky, N. (2005). "Three factors in language design". Linguistic Inquiry. 36 (1): 1–22. doi: 10.1162/0024389052993655. S2CID 14954986. Enfield, N. J. (2010). "Without social context?" (PDF). Science. 329 (5999): 1600–1601. Bibcode: 2010Sci...329.1600E. doi: 10.1126/science.1194229. hdl: 11858/00-001M-0000-0012-C777-5. S2CID 143530707.Aronoff, Mark (2017). "Darwinism tested by the science of language". In Bowern; Horn; Zanuttini (eds.). On Looking into Words (and Beyond): Structures, Relations, Analyses. SUNY Press. pp.443–456. ISBN 978-3-946234-92-0 . Retrieved 3 March 2020. Grammaticalisation theorists picture early language as simple, perhaps consisting only of nouns. [137] p.111 Even under that extreme theoretical assumption, however, it is difficult to imagine what would realistically have prevented people from using, say, "spear" as if it were a verb ("Spear that pig!"). People might have used their nouns as verbs or their verbs as nouns as occasion demanded. In short, while a noun-only language might seem theoretically possible, grammaticalisation theory indicates that it cannot have remained fixed in that state for any length of time. [135] [139] Further evidence suggests that gesture and language are linked. In humans, manually gesturing has an effect on concurrent vocalizations, thus creating certain natural vocal associations of manual efforts. Chimpanzees move their mouths when performing fine motor tasks. These mechanisms may have played an evolutionary role in enabling the development of intentional vocal communication as a supplement to gestural communication. Voice modulation could have been prompted by preexisting manual actions. [89]

History of British Sign Language - UCL History of British Sign Language - UCL

a b Larsson, M (2015). "Tool-use-associated sound in the evolution of language". Animal Cognition. 18 (5): 993–1005. doi: 10.1007/s10071-015-0885-x. PMID 26118672. S2CID 18714154. In the wild, the communication of vervet monkeys has been the most extensively studied. [163] They are known to make up to ten different vocalizations. Many of these are used to warn other members of the group about approaching predators. They include a "leopard call", a "snake call", and an "eagle call". [167] Each call triggers a different defensive strategy in the monkeys who hear the call and scientists were able to elicit predictable responses from the monkeys using loudspeakers and prerecorded sounds. Other vocalisations may be used for identification. If an infant monkey calls, its mother turns toward it, but other vervet mothers turn instead toward that infant's mother to see what she will do. [168] [169]Tomasello, Michael (1996). B M Velichkovskiĭ; Duane M Rumbaugh; Universität Bielefeld Zentrum für Interdisziplinäre Forschung (eds.). The cultural roots of language. ISBN 978-0-8058-2118-5. OCLC 34078362. {{ cite book}}: |work= ignored ( help) Marslen-Wilson, W. (1973). "Linguistic structure and speech shadowing at very short latencies". Nature. 244 (5417): 522–523. Bibcode: 1973Natur.244..522M. doi: 10.1038/244522a0. PMID 4621131. S2CID 4220775. Knight, Chris (2009). Rudolf P Botha; Chris Knight (eds.). Language, Ochre, and the Rule of Law. pp.281–303. ISBN 978-0-19-954586-5. OCLC 804498749. {{ cite book}}: |work= ignored ( help) Pika, Simone; Mitani, John (2006). "Referential gestural communication in wild chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes)". Current Biology. 16 (6): R191–R192. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2006.02.037. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 16546066. S2CID 2273018. Dessalles, Jean L. (1998). James R. Hurford; Michael Studdert-Kennedy; Chris Knight (eds.). Altruism, status and the origin of relevance. pp.130–147. ISBN 978-0-521-63964-4. OCLC 37742390. {{ cite book}}: |work= ignored ( help)


Based on computer simulations used to evaluate that evolution of language that resulted in showing three stages in the evolution of syntax, Neanderthals are thought to have been in stage 2, showing they had something more evolved than proto-language but not quite as complex as the language of modern humans. [192] a b Arensburg, B.; Tillier, A. M.; Vandermeersch, B.; Duday, H.; Schepartz, L. A.; Rak, Y. (1989). "A Middle Palaeolithic human hyoid bone". Nature. 338 (6218): 758–760. Bibcode: 1989Natur.338..758A. doi: 10.1038/338758a0. PMID 2716823. S2CID 4309147. Field primatologists can give useful insights into great ape communication in the wild. [30] One notable finding is that nonhuman primates, including the other great apes, produce calls that are graded, as opposed to categorically differentiated, with listeners striving to evaluate subtle gradations in signallers' emotional and bodily states. Nonhuman apes seemingly find it extremely difficult to produce vocalisations in the absence of the corresponding emotional states. [44] In captivity, nonhuman apes have been taught rudimentary forms of sign language or have been persuaded to use lexigrams—symbols that do not graphically resemble the corresponding words—on computer keyboards. Some nonhuman apes, such as Kanzi, have been able to learn and use hundreds of lexigrams. [164] [165]Shu, W.; Cho, J. Y.; Jiang, Y.; Zhang, M.; Weisz, D.; Elder, G. A.; Schmeidler, J.; De Gasperi, R.; Sosa, M. A. G. (27 June 2005). "Altered ultrasonic vocalization in mice with a disruption in the Foxp2 gene". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 102 (27): 9643–9648. Bibcode: 2005PNAS..102.9643S. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0503739102. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 1160518. PMID 15983371.

Origin of language - Wikipedia

a b Heine, Bernd; Kuteva, Tania (2012). Maggie Tallerman; Kathleen R. Gibson (eds.). Grammaticalization theory as a tool for reconstructing language evolution. pp.512–527. ISBN 978-0-19-954111-9. OCLC 724665645. {{ cite book}}: |work= ignored ( help) Creativity drives grammatical change. [139] This presupposes a certain attitude on the part of listeners. Instead of punishing deviations from accepted usage, listeners must prioritise imaginative mind-reading. Imaginative creativity—emitting a leopard alarm when no leopard was present, for example—is not the kind of behaviour which, say, vervet monkeys would appreciate or reward. [140] Creativity and reliability are incompatible demands; for "Machiavellian" primates as for animals generally, the overriding pressure is to demonstrate reliability. [141] If humans escape these constraints, it is because in their case, listeners are primarily interested in mental states.

Larsson, M (2014). "Self-generated sounds of locomotion and ventilation and the evolution of human rhythmic abilities". Animal Cognition. 17 (1): 1–14. doi: 10.1007/s10071-013-0678-z. PMC 3889703. PMID 23990063. Hopper, P. J. 1998. Emergent grammar. In M. Tomasello (ed.), The New Psychology of Language. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 155–175.

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